In this argument, the arguer concludes/ suggests/ makes a suggestion/ makes a conclusion that…To justify this conclusion/ suggestion/ argument, the arguer points out/ cites that…The arguer also points out/ cites that…Although the argument/ conclusion/ suggestion seems plausible, after closely scrutinizing this argument, I find that this argument is logically flawed in several aspects, which render it unconvincing as it stands.
In conclusion, despite that fact that this argument seems appealing, it has several logical flaws, and is therefore unpersuasive as it stands. To bolster his or her argument, the arguer must provide more information which can show that…To better support this argument, the arguer should also provide…To better evaluate this argument, I would also need to know that…
A threshold problem with this argument involves a survey/ study/ research itself. The statistical reliability of the survey/study/research/ is really dubious可疑 for the reason that the speaker provide no evidence which can show that the number of the respondents( 這里建議替換成調查研究中的群體。比如針對誰提問就寫誰) is statistically significant or that the respondents were representative of the overall group of people(接所有群體，比如北京市所有的一類群體) in general. Common sense tells us that the smaller the size of the sample, the greater the possibility for biased results, the less reliable the result of the survey and the less reliable any general conclusions drawn from the survey. That is to say, (你要開始攻擊了) The number of participants, 100(文中數據), might be just an insufficiently small sample on which cannot be justifiably relied to draw any reliable conclusions about... Also, the sample might be not necessarily representative of (所有群體). Lacking the information about the randomness and the size of the survey sample, the speaker cannot convince me to believe in the result of the survey—let alone draw any broader recommendation based on the survey/study/research/ result.
用于結尾總結的句型: To better support this argument, the arguer should provide more information to show that the respondents of the survey are statistically significant in number and can represent the overall ...
The arguer unfairly assumes that the fact that A is due to B. However, there is no sufficient evidence which can substantiate/confirm this assumption. The speaker overlooks other factors that might also lead to the fact that (接原題的結論。比如，盈利，水平上升，總之就是作者希望的那樣). As a matter of fact, the fact that A might be explained by a variety of factors. So lacking evidence to confirm this assumption, it is entirely possible that…It is equally possible that…Moreover, perhaps that…(一般情況下我推薦3種其他的可能性) In short, without considering and ruling out all of these and other possibilities, the credibility of the arguer’s conclusion is really open to doubt for the reason that each of the possibilities, if true, would serve to undermine the arguer’s conclusion./ the arguer cannot justifiably concludes that…/ I remain unconvinced that…
結尾中的總結句: The author must consider and eliminate other possible reasons that may also lead to this result.
Moreover, the argument rests on a unconvincing assumption that A leads to B for the reason that there is no evidence given to substantiate the claim that A contributes to B. (除了調查，原題一定會給一個其他的邏輯A-B這樣的非充分必要條件，本段的攻擊就是針對其展開) Even if it is true that…the mere fact that(指向原題的條件) does not necessarily indicate that(原題結論). It is entirely possible that(注意，本次可能性列舉是就原題條件列舉，上段的列舉是就結論列舉，完全不同，一個是反證，一個是歸謬。請大家注意)..Or perhaps….(這段列舉我不建議超過2個，因為太多的列舉會顯得邏輯性不強。2個就夠了)
Thus, given these possible scenarios, the fact(原題的條件) prove nothing about (原題結論)
The argument is unconvincing also because it is based on a false analogy. Failing to take into account the possible differences between A and B, the arguer makes a hasty analogy. It is entirely possible that A and B are not similar enough to justify this analogical deduction.(上面的句子是所有錯誤類比的題目通殺的句子, 只要有錯誤類比, 那么先把這幾句打上) Perhaps…(兩者之間可能差異一)Or perhaps…(兩者之間可能差異二). Therefore, without providing sufficient information showing that most or even all of the conditions in A and B is similar or the same, the author cannot convince me that the method which is efficient in A can also be efficient in B as well. (結尾句同樣是所有錯誤類比的題目通殺的, 只要有錯誤類比, 這句就寫上)
The mere fact that A is scant evidence that B would achieve its goals by following A’s example. Perhaps the same course of action would be ineffective on B due to geological differences between the two islands. Or perhaps ... In short, lacking evidence that conditions on the two islands are relevantly similar, the author cannot convince me on the basis of A’s experience that the proposed course of action would be effective in attaining Tria’s goals.
所以我們可以看到, 錯誤類比也是相當好操作的一種錯誤, 事實上唯一需要動動腦子的就是中間兩者差異的列舉, 其余部分都是固定的.
The arguer commits a false comparison for the reason that there is no evidence which can show that A and B is comparable at every aspect…(自己的論證) Therefore, without showing that A and B are really comparable at most or even all of their each aspects, the arguer’s comparison is meaningless.